EXERCISE & HEALTH IN ADOLESCENT GIRLS

  • “Research suggests that helping girls develop active lifestyles as adolescents facilitates them continuing that active lifestyle into adulthood. Inactive adolescents are very likely to become inactive adults.”
    (Gordon-Larsen, Adair, Nelson, & Popkin, 2004; Pate, Heath, Doda, & Trost, 1996)

  • “Being inactive as an adult is related to substantial risk of serious health conditions, including coronary heart disease, stroke, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, and many types of cancer, including Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and cancer of the breast, colon, endometrium, esophagus, kidney, pancreas, gall bladder, thyroid, ovary, and cervix.”
    (Kushi et al., 2006; Lee et al., 2012)

EXERCISE & MENTAL HEALTH IN ADOLESCENT GIRLS

  • “Physical activity leads to higher self-esteem, especially among younger adolescent girls and girls who are overweight, which is important given that adolescent girls are at high risk for low self-esteem as they go through adolescence.”
    (Schmalz, Deane, Birch, & Davison, 2007) (Kling, Hyde, Showers, & Buswell, 1999)

  • “Self-esteem is important for psychological well-being, positive body image, increased self-efficacy, and leadership skills, and having self-esteem protects against depression, anxiety, loneliness, aggression problems, and high-risk behaviors like smoking and substance abuse.”
    (Strauss, 2000; Strong et al., 2005; Trzesniewski et al., 2006).

EXERCISE & COGNITIVE SKILLS/JUDGEMENT IN ADOLESCENT GIRLS

  • “Aerobic exercise has been shown to improve functioning in the prefrontal cortex of the brain.”
    (Chaddock, Pontifex, Hillman, & Kramer, 2011; Hillman, Erickson, & Kramer, 2008)

  • “The prefrontal cortex is responsible for our executive functions, which are cognitive control skills like the ability to focus our attention, be creative and flexible in our thinking, utilize self-control, modulate intense emotions, and store and manipulate information in our working memory. This means our prefrontal cortex also plays a key role in our ability to problem solve, think in complex and abstract ways, exercise good judgment in challenging situations, and do well in school.”
    (Chaddock, Pontifex, Hillman, & Kramer, 2011; Hillman, Erickson, & Kramer, 2008)

Burdette, K. (n.d.). Adolescent Girls and Physical Activity. Retrieved from https://www.apadivisions.org/division-35/news-events/news/physical-activity

ADOLESCENT BODY IMAGE & THE MOTHER-DAUGHTER RELATIONSHIP

  • “The adolescent years, characterized by emotional upheaval and extreme hormonal and physiological changes, create numerous situations of stress and conflict between adolescents and their parents. Mothers often feel rejected and alienated by their daughters who wish to shape their own identity and strive for a sense of autonomy. The current research findings emphasize the importance of the mother-daughter relationship and the mother’s emotional support in forging a positive body image.”
    (Usmiani, S. & Daniluk, J., 1997)

  • “The adolescent girl’s positive perception of her relationship with her mother is an important factor in her positive body image and high-level sense of wellbeing. As we learned from the study, a good relationship with her mother increased the daughter’s wellbeing even when she felt negatively about her body.”
    (Usmiani, S. & Daniluk, J., 1997)